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For details of the story, see Miserere Allegri and Mozart's compositional method. The Musical Times. Provides new information on this episode.
Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 29 January Histoire de la musique occidentale. Paris: Fayard.
He wrote during that period that, whenever he or someone else played one of his compositions, it was as if the table and chairs were the only listeners.
For detailed discussion of the influence of Opus 33 on the "Haydn" quartets. Leopold's letter to his daughter Nannerl , 14—16 May Mozart: An Extraordinary Life.
Associated Board of the Royal School of Music. Radio Praha. Retrieved 14 December Alfred Music Publishing. Classic FM UK.
Archived from the original PDF on 7 April American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 25 April Maybe Strep".
The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April The Telegraph. Retrieved 7 May Andrews UK Limited. Discussion of the sources of style as well as his early imitative ability.
Retrieved 7 December Interpreting Mozart on the Keyboard. Barrie and Rockliff. Life of Mozart. Abert, Hermann Translated by Spencer, Stewart.
Cliff Eisen ed. New Haven: Yale University Press. Barry, Barbara R. Hillsdale, New York: Pendragon Press. Deutsch, Otto Erich Mozart: A Documentary Biography.
Stanford: Stanford University Press. Einstein, Alfred Mozart: His Character, His Work. Galaxy Book Arthur Mendel , Nathan Broder trans. Eisen, Cliff ; Keefe, Simon P.
The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eisen, Cliff; et al. Grove Music Online subscription required. Retrieved 15 September Fradkin, Robert A Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Freeman, Daniel E. Mozart in Prague. Minneapolis: Bearclaw. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians V ed.
New York: Macmillam Press. Gutman, Robert Mozart: A Cultural Biography. London: Harcourt Brace. Halliwell, Ruth New York City: Clarendon Press.
Haberl, Dieter Neues Musikwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch in German Heartz, Daniel New York City: W. Landon, Howard Chandler Robbins London: Flamingo.
Lorenz, Michael 9 August Retrieved 27 September Czajkowski, Paul ed. London: Penguin. Mozart, Wolfgang; Mozart, Leopold Anderson, Emily ed.
The Letters of Mozart and his Family 2nd ed. London: Macmillan. Translated by Robert Spaethling. Raptus Association for Music Appreciation. Rosen, Charles Sadie, Stanley , ed.
The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. Sadie, Stanley, ed. Solomon, Maynard Mozart: A Life 1st ed.
New York City: HarperCollins. Steptoe, Andrew Oxford: Clarendon Press. Vatican Secret Archives. Archived from the original on 18 September Wakin, Daniel J.
Wilson, Peter Hamish The Holy Roman Empire, — London: MacMillan. Wolff, Christoph New York: Norton. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Book Category.
Classical period. List of Classical-era composers. Stamitz J. Stamitz Filtz Gluck C. Bach L. Mozart G. Classical orchestra String quartet.
Galant music Intermezzo Pastorale Sensitive style. Baroque music Common practice period 18th-century philosophy Classicism. Category Portal WikiProject.
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Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught his children languages and academic subjects. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies.
A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim , Paris, London,  Dover, The Hague, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Mechelen and again to Paris, and back home via Zurich , Donaueschingen , and Munich.
A particularly significant influence was Johann Christian Bach , whom he visited in London in and When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of which was probably transcribed by his father.
The family trips were often challenging, and travel conditions were primitive. This tour lasted from December to March As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a rapidly maturing composer.
In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri 's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel , and wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this closely guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto , which was performed with success. This led to further opera commissions.
Leopold hoped these visits would result in a professional appointment for his son, and indeed ruling Archduke Ferdinand contemplated hiring Mozart, but owing to his mother Empress Maria Theresa 's reluctance to employ "useless people", the matter was dropped [d] and Leopold's hopes were never realized.
After finally returning with his father from Italy on 13 March , Mozart was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo.
The composer had many friends and admirers in Salzburg  and had the opportunity to work in many genres, including symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, masses , serenades, and a few minor operas.
Between April and December , Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five the only ones he ever wrote , which steadily increased in their musical sophistication.
The last three— K. Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontented with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to find a position elsewhere.
One reason was his low salary, florins a year;  Mozart longed to compose operas, and Salzburg provided only rare occasions for these.
The situation worsened in when the court theatre was closed, especially since the other theatre in Salzburg was primarily reserved for visiting troupes.
Two long expeditions in search of work interrupted this long Salzburg stay. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera.
In August , Mozart resigned his position at Salzburg  [e] and on 23 September ventured out once more in search of employment, with visits to Augsburg , Mannheim, Paris, and Munich.
Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time.
He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber , one of four daughters of a musical family. There were prospects of employment in Mannheim, but they came to nothing,  and Mozart left for Paris on 14 March  to continue his search.
One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles , but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment. While Mozart was in Paris, his father was pursuing opportunities of employment for him in Salzburg.
The annual salary was florins,  but he was reluctant to accept. After leaving Paris in September for Strasbourg, he lingered in Mannheim and Munich, still hoping to obtain an appointment outside Salzburg.
In Munich, he again encountered Aloysia, now a very successful singer, but she was no longer interested in him. Among the better-known works which Mozart wrote on the Paris journey are the A minor piano sonata , K.
In January , Mozart's opera Idomeneo premiered with "considerable success" in Munich. For Colloredo, this was simply a matter of wanting his musical servant to be at hand Mozart indeed was required to dine in Colloredo's establishment with the valets and cooks.
My main goal right now is to meet the emperor in some agreeable fashion, I am absolutely determined he should get to know me. I would be so happy if I could whip through my opera for him and then play a fugue or two, for that's what he likes.
Mozart did indeed soon meet the Emperor, who eventually was to support his career substantially with commissions and a part-time position.
In the same letter to his father just quoted, Mozart outlined his plans to participate as a soloist in the concerts of the Tonkünstler-Societät , a prominent benefit concert series;  this plan as well came to pass after the local nobility prevailed on Colloredo to drop his opposition.
Colloredo's wish to prevent Mozart from performing outside his establishment was in other cases, however, carried through, raising the composer's anger; one example was a chance to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun 's for a fee equal to half of his yearly Salzburg salary.
The quarrel with the archbishop came to a head in May: Mozart attempted to resign and was refused. The following month, permission was granted, but in a grossly insulting way: the composer was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the archbishop's steward, Count Arco.
Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer. The quarrel with the archbishop went harder for Mozart because his father sided against him.
Hoping fervently that he would obediently follow Colloredo back to Salzburg, Mozart's father exchanged intense letters with his son, urging him to be reconciled with their employer.
Mozart passionately defended his intention to pursue an independent career in Vienna. The debate ended when Mozart was dismissed by the archbishop, freeing himself both of his employer and of his father's demands to return.
Solomon characterizes Mozart's resignation as a "revolutionary step", and it significantly altered the course of his life.
Mozart's new career in Vienna began well. He often performed as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi on 24 December ,  and he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna".
The work was soon being performed "throughout German-speaking Europe",  and thoroughly established Mozart's reputation as a composer.
Near the height of his quarrels with Colloredo, Mozart moved in with the Weber family, who had moved to Vienna from Mannheim.
The father, Fridolin, had died, and the Webers were now taking in lodgers to make ends meet. Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor and artist Joseph Lange.
Mozart's interest shifted to the third Weber daughter, Constanze. The courtship did not go entirely smoothly; surviving correspondence indicates that Mozart and Constanze briefly separated in April Stephen's Cathedral , the day before his father's consent arrived in the mail.
In and , Mozart became intimately acquainted with the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel as a result of the influence of Gottfried van Swieten , who owned many manuscripts of the Baroque masters.
Mozart's study of these scores inspired compositions in Baroque style and later influenced his musical language, for example in fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte "The Magic Flute" and the finale of Symphony No.
In , Mozart and his wife visited his family in Salzburg. His father and sister were cordially polite to Constanze, but the visit prompted the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C minor.
Though not completed, it was premiered in Salzburg, with Constanze singing a solo part. Mozart met Joseph Haydn in Vienna around , and the two composers became friends.
When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn K. From to Mozart mounted concerts with himself as a soloist, presenting three or four new piano concertos in each season.
Since space in the theatres was scarce, he booked unconventional venues: a large room in the Trattnerhof an apartment building , and the ballroom of the Mehlgrube a restaurant.
Solomon writes that during this period, Mozart created "a harmonious connection between an eager composer-performer and a delighted audience, which was given the opportunity of witnessing the transformation and perfection of a major musical genre".
With substantial returns from his concerts and elsewhere, Mozart and his wife adopted a rather luxurious lifestyle.
They moved to an expensive apartment, with a yearly rent of florins. Saving was therefore impossible, and the short period of financial success did nothing to soften the hardship the Mozarts were later to experience.
Despite the great success of Die Entführung aus dem Serail , Mozart did little operatic writing for the next four years, producing only two unfinished works and the one-act Der Schauspieldirektor.
He focused instead on his career as a piano soloist and writer of concertos. Its reception in Prague later in the year was even warmer, and this led to a second collaboration with Da Ponte: the opera Don Giovanni , which premiered in October to acclaim in Prague, but less success in Vienna in These developments were not witnessed by Mozart's father, who had died on 28 May In December , Mozart finally obtained a steady post under aristocratic patronage.
Emperor Joseph II appointed him as his "chamber composer", a post that had fallen vacant the previous month on the death of Gluck.
It was a part-time appointment, paying just florins per year, and required Mozart only to compose dances for the annual balls in the Redoutensaal see Mozart and dance.
This modest income became important to Mozart when hard times arrived. Court records show that Joseph aimed to keep the esteemed composer from leaving Vienna in pursuit of better prospects.
In , the young Ludwig van Beethoven spent several weeks in Vienna, hoping to study with Mozart. Toward the end of the decade, Mozart's circumstances worsened.
Around he had ceased to appear frequently in public concerts, and his income shrank. By mid, Mozart and his family had moved from central Vienna to the suburb of Alsergrund.
Around this time, Mozart made some long journeys hoping to improve his fortunes: to Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin in the spring of , and Frankfurt , Mannheim, and other German cities in Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, a time of high productivity—and by some accounts, one of personal recovery.
Mozart's financial situation, a source of anxiety in , finally began to improve. Although the evidence is inconclusive,  it appears that wealthy patrons in Hungary and Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart in return for the occasional composition.
He is thought to have benefited from the sale of dance music written in his role as Imperial chamber composer.
He experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some of his works, notably The Magic Flute which was performed several times in the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death  and the Little Masonic Cantata K.
His health deteriorated on 20 November, at which point he became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting.
Mozart was nursed in his final illness by his wife and her youngest sister and was attended by the family doctor, Thomas Franz Closset.
He was mentally occupied with the task of finishing his Requiem , but the evidence that he dictated passages to his student Franz Xaver Süssmayr is minimal.
Mozart was interred in a common grave, in accordance with contemporary Viennese custom, at the St. If, as later reports say, no mourners attended, that too is consistent with Viennese burial customs at the time; later Otto Jahn wrote that Salieri , Süssmayr , van Swieten and two other musicians were present.
The tale of a storm and snow is false; the day was calm and mild. The expression "common grave" refers to neither a communal grave nor a pauper's grave, but an individual grave for a member of the common people i.
Common graves were subject to excavation after ten years; the graves of aristocrats were not. The cause of Mozart's death cannot be known with certainty.
The official record has it as hitziges Frieselfieber "severe miliary fever", referring to a rash that looks like millet seeds , more a description of the symptoms than a diagnosis.
Researchers have suggested more than a hundred causes of death, including acute rheumatic fever ,   streptococcal infection ,   trichinosis ,   influenza , mercury poisoning , and a rare kidney ailment.
Mozart's modest funeral did not reflect his standing with the public as a composer; memorial services and concerts in Vienna and Prague were well-attended.
Indeed, in the period immediately after his death, his reputation rose substantially. Solomon describes an "unprecedented wave of enthusiasm"  for his work; biographies were written first by Schlichtegroll , Niemetschek , and Nissen ; and publishers vied to produce complete editions of his works.
Mozart's physical appearance was described by tenor Michael Kelly in his Reminiscences : "a remarkably small man, very thin and pale, with a profusion of fine, fair hair of which he was rather vain".
His early biographer Niemetschek wrote, "there was nothing special about [his] physique. He was small and his countenance, except for his large intense eyes, gave no signs of his genius.
He loved elegant clothing. Kelly remembered him at a rehearsal: "[He] was on the stage with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat , giving the time of the music to the orchestra.
Mozart usually worked long and hard, finishing compositions at a tremendous pace as deadlines approached. He often made sketches and drafts; unlike Beethoven's, these are mostly not preserved, as his wife sought to destroy them after his death.
Mozart lived at the center of the Viennese musical world, and knew a significant number and variety of people: fellow musicians, theatrical performers, fellow Salzburgers, and aristocrats, including some acquaintance with Emperor Joseph II.
Leutgeb and Mozart carried on a curious kind of friendly mockery, often with Leutgeb as the butt of Mozart's practical jokes.
To je trajalo sve do ljeta Vratio se u Salzburg i njegov provincijalni mir. Sklada mise, simfonije, koncerte, sonate, operu.
Godine Od Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart Karl Thomas Mozart Razdoblje od Uspjeh je bio ponovljen. Ipak u to vrijeme sklada tri simfonije br.